Archive for the ‘PI Général – Canada – IP’ Category

Details of Proposed Amendments to Canadian IP Laws in Budget Bill

May 8, 2015

See links:

Patent Act (including extending privilege to communications with Canadian patent agents)
TRADE-MARK AGENTS (including extending privilege to communications with Canadian trademark agents)

Projet de Loi pour amender la Loi sur la protection des obtentions végétales

December 13, 2013
        Texte du projet de loi

Extrait d’un article de commentaire:
  Among the changes are amendments to the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act to align it with the International Union for Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV ’91). The government’s changes to plant breeders’ rights legislation, proposed to be in place by Aug. 1 2014, will encourage increased plant breeding investment in Canada and encourage foreign breeders to sell their varieties to Canada’s farmers, who will benefit from improved access to innovative new varieties, Ritz says. At the same time the bill “enshrines farmers’ privilege when it comes to saving seeds.” That means farmers’ right to reuse and replant the seed personally saved from crops grown on their own land “is protected under UPOV ’91,” he says.

SOMMAIRE (du projet de loi)
Le texte met en oeuvre diverses mesures en matière d’agriculture par la modification de plusieurs lois.
Il modifie la Loi sur la protection des obtentions végétales afin de modifier divers attributs des droits dont jouissent les titulaires de certificats d’obtention en vertu de cette loi, notamment la durée de validité de ces droits, leur étendue, ainsi que les conditions de protection afférentes. Il prévoit également des exceptions à l’application de ces droits.

La communauté de compagnies de licences de brevets ou des “patent trolls” d’Ottawa?

November 27, 2013

Article avec reportages vidéos:

Accord Libre-échange Canada-Europe: plus de détails sur les clauses de propriété intellectuelle

October 30, 2013

Voir à partir de page 19 de


Data protection

Canada rejected the EU request to provide 10 years of data protection

Canada agreed to lock in the current Canadian practice of providing eight years of market exclusivity

current regulations provide a six year “no-filing” period during which no applications for generic drugs are

accepted for regulatory consideration and a two-year“no-marketing” period during which generics can

progress toward market readiness but cannot be sold

Patent linkage / right of appeal

Canada agreed to a general commitment to ensure that litigants are afforded effective rights of appeal, which

gives scope for Canada to end the practice of dual litigation.

ensures all litigants have equal appeal rights

will bring improvements to Canada’s pharmaceutical intellectual property regime by taking inefficiencies

out of the system

litigation in this area is currently one of the largest draws on the federal court system

guarantee of an effective appeal for brands and more certainty for generics


Both generic and brand-name drug manufacturers take issue with the status quo regarding the

opportunities for litigation and appeal in Canada.

Brand-name manufacturers do not have an effective right of appeal under the patent-linkage system.

Generic manufacturers note that a successful result under patent-linkage litigation is no guarantee of success

in the case of subsequent litigation under thePatent Act.

Additional protection

Canada agreed to provide additional (sui generis) protection for pharmaceutical products protected by eligible

patents in Canada.

Thee period of protection will be calculated using reference points including the filing of the application for the

patent and the first authorization to place the product on the Canadian market.

•The period of protection offered by Canada will never exceed a fixed cap of two years.

•The cap on the period of protection in the EU remains higher, at five years.

Exceptions have been negotiated to allow for Canadian-made generic medicines to be exported during the

period of additional protection.

•This will temper the impact on the generic industry and its competitiveness in the important United States


No retroactivity: pharmaceutical products that are already approved and on the Canadian market would not

receive additional protection.

Any cost impacts not likely to be felt until 2023*.

*using eight as an estimate of the average number of years that a pharmaceutical product would be on the

market before becoming eligible for the type of additional protection negotiated in CETA, and assuming

that CETA is ratified in 2015

Should concessions to the EU in this area generate cost impacts on provincial and territorial governments, the

federal government is prepared to address these incremental cost impacts.


The CETA result on copyright reflects Canada’s system as updated by the 2012 Copyright Modernization Act,

which brought Canada into compliance with the two 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization treaties

(Copyright, and Performances and Phonograms).

Reiterates existing aspects of Canada’s copyright regime, including term of protection, broadcasting, protection

of technological measures (technology designed to protect copyrighted material), protection of rights

management information, and liability of intermediary (e.g. Internet) service providers

Trademarks and designs

Canada did not take on specific commitments in this area. !e CETA result on trademarks and designs reflects

a best endeavours commitment to make all reasonable efforts to comply with international agreements and

standards to encourage more effective trademark and industrial design procedures.

With regard to the above, CETA specifically mentions the Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks, the

Protocol Related to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, and the

Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs.

Geographical indications (GIs)

Canada currently recognizes a number of EU wines and spirit geographical indications (GI), such as Cognac

and Bordeaux.

Agreed to varying ways of addressing EU requests regarding 179 terms covering foods and beer

Preserved space for Canadian trademark holders and for users of commonly used English and French names for

food products

Offer protection for GIs without prejudicing the validity of existing Canadian trademarks

The economic impact will be contained in Canada.

Enforcement of GIs in the Canadian market remains a private matter to be argued before the courts.

Some EU GIs were protected but with the caveat that they not impact the ability of producers to use specified

English- and French-language terms that are commonly employed in Canada.

•The following terms continue to be free for use in the Canadian market, in both official languages,

regardless of product origin: Valencia orange, Black Forest ham, Tiroler bacon, Parmesan, Bavarian beer,

Munich beer.

For example, Canadian producers would be able to use English and French but not the German language

for Black Forest ham (Schwarzwaelder Schinken).

Limited GI rights provided to EU on: Asiago, feta, fontina, Gorgonzola and Munster

won’t affect ability of current users of these names in Canada to continue use

future users will be able to use the names only when accompanied by expressions such as “kind,” “type,”

style,” “imitation” or the like

Canada preserves the ability to use the customary name of a plant variety or an animal breed.

Producers can, for example, sell the kalamata variety of olive and use the variety name in their packaging.

Canada maintains ability to use components of multi-part terms, for example:

“Brie de Meaux“ will be protected, but the term “brie” can be used on its own

“Gouda Holland“ will be protected, but the term “Gouda” can be used on its own

“Edam Holland” will be protected, but the term “Edam” can be used on its own

“Mortadella Bologna“ will be protected, but either “Mortadella” or “bologna” can be used separately

Canada did not agree to protect the French term “noix de Grenoble” (walnut, in English), meaning this term

remains free for use in Canada.

Budweiser beer : Canada will not protect the GI “Budejovicke,” which prevents any potential conflict with the

Budweiser trademark.

Consultations were conducted with stakeholders, including meetings with individual trademark holders.

Plants and plant protection products

Reflects Canadian regime

provides certainty for data protection for plant protection products

Commits both sides to co-operate to promote and reinforce the protection of plant varieties based on the

International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)

Canada and the EU already work together under UPOV.

CETA will not change the “farmers’ privilege” to save and replant seeds of a protected variety on their own land

under the federal Plant Breeders’Rights’ Act.


Commitment to ensure simple, fair, equitable and cost-effective enforcement of intellectual property rights

Includes provisions on civil remedies and border enforcement in line with Canada’s existing regime and federal

Bill C-56, Combating Counterfeit Products Act

Commitments concerning the handling of geographical indications at the border: to be confirmed

!is is not expected to interrupt trade at the border.

En ce jour de St-Valentin, une demande de brevet utilisée comme instrument de demande en mariage

February 14, 2013

Voir la demande sur le site:

Scintillae of inventiveness or imagination #4

February 8, 2013

Articles repérés dans les dernières semaines:

RIM at head of pack in patent prowess – Globe and Mail

– U.S. Inventiveness at Highest Point Since Industrial Revolution

-Report Shows Median Price Paid for Issued U.S. Patents Is $221,000

Article sur la stratégie de P&G dans leurs dépôts de dessins industriels

Jurisprudence brevets:

« Coffee, tea, SEGA – patent problems »

Toujours mieux de corriger les erreurs concernant les inventeurs avant que le brevet soit émis. Sinon, il faut demander à la Cour fédérale pour permission.

Segatoys Co., Ltd. v. Canada (Attorney General) , 2013 FC 98 (January 30, 2013)

Autre décision

À contraster avec le test de Nike c. Bauer (voir par. 75 ci-dessous) : 1. The patent was not anticipated. Easton had argued that Nike/Bauer anticipated its own patent by having NHL hockey players try on prototype skates in a public arena before the filing date of the patent. The appeal court agreed that based on the available evidence, such casual observation of the prototypes without an opportunity for close scrutiny would not have revealed the invention to a skilled observer.

  • Wenzel      Downhole Tools Ltd. v. National-Oilwell Canada Ltd., 2012 FCA 333 (Justice      Nadon; Justice Mainville; Justice Gauthier)

Extrait pertinent sur la nouveauté (est-ce qu’une vente/location constitue une divulgation):

63] That being said, the real focus in this appeal was on whether an accurate and full description of the invention was available in this case, applying the undisputed principles set out in the reasons at paragraphs 80-90. As noted in the Appellants’ Outline of oral argument on Anticipation, did the judge misapply the law when one considers her findings of facts with respect to what actually occurred? For the Appellants , the Judge erred because “disclosure, not hypothetical disclosure of the invention is a necessary precursor to a determination of anticipation”

[64] In Lux, Aldous J. made it clear that he did not accept the argument before him that the task of the Court was to ascertain “what actually happened during the use of the prototype [the product embodying the claimed invention in his case] and from that conclude what a skilled man would assimilate” (Lux at page 134).

[65] In this case, I believe that the Appellants exhibit a similar misunderstanding.

[66] The test for anticipation by disclosure through a product (and for that matter, for anticipation by publication) is an objective one. Whether or not a real person fitting the description of the POSITA was actually present at the drilling site is irrelevant, as is what actually happened at the site during the rental period.

[67] What is relevant in the case of a product like the drilling tools at issue “is that which the skilled man would, if asked to describe its construction and operation, write down having carried out an appropriate test or examination.[my emphasis]” (Lux at page 134 in the passage actually cited by the Judge in her reasons at paragraph 87).

[68] My understanding, based on the relevant jurisprudence, is that becoming available means that, the public, as defined earlier, had an opportunity to access the information that is the invention. As previously mentioned, it does not require that one actually took advantage of this opportunity. Once the opportunity is established as a fact (here, for example, that: (i) Dreco had unrestricted access to the drilling tools, and any information derived from such access was not protected by confidentiality; and (ii) a method to open such tools and examine their internal structures was known), the Court applies the legal test for anticipation developed in Sanofi (full disclosure of all the essential elements of the invention and enablement) to the information that the fictional POSITA would derive from the fictional examination.

[69] The Appellants disagree with the analogies used by the Judge, being: (i) a book in a public library (the reasons at paragraph 118); and (ii) the “lifting of the hood” (the reasons at paragraph 123). They say that the drilling tools in this case are not analogous to a book in a library, nor was the opening of the tools like the lifting of the hood of a car. Again, I cannot agree. Aldous J. in Lux, later quoted by Rothstein J.A. in Baker Petrolite, referred to the book in a public library even though he was looking at a case of prior use of a product, not anticipation by publication. The book in the public library could be in Japanese, even though the library is located in a remote village where no one speaks Japanese. This would still be a disclosure that would make whatever information it contained available, even though accessing the information that is available requires the use of a dictionary or even an interpreter that would not be available in that village. As for the lifting of the hood, it is true that opening the sealed joints to examine the internal structure may be a bit more tedious than lifting a hood but that does not detract from the validity of the analogy. As mentioned, this is not relevant; being available does not require that access to the information be easy, simply that it be possible using known methods and instruments.

[70] Again, I reiterate that it is my understanding of the law as it stands now that even if the library listed in a ledger all those who entered the library and recorded each book they reviewed, and a defendant would accordingly be able to prove that nobody had actually accessed the book in the library, my conclusion would be the same. The presence of the book in the library is sufficient to make the information available, and thus to meet the requirements for anticipation within the meaning of section 28.2.

[71] Although this may appear harsh, it is less so than the test that was applied in Canada prior to the adoption of paragraph 28.2(1)(a), and in England prior to the adoption of their Patents Act 1977 implementing the EPC. There is no evidence that, by adopting this new paragraph, the Canadian legislator meant to achieve any purpose other than harmonization with the test applied in Europe. I note that a similar amendment will come into force in the United States in 2013 (Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 35 U.S.C. at §102 (coming into effect on March 16, 2013)).

[72] As mentioned in Baker Petrolite, paragraph 28.2(1)(a) now excludes from anticipatory uses products the examination of which would not give an accurate and complete description of the invention even if the most complex of the known analytical methods were used by the POSITA (see paragraph 42, particularly subparagraphs 1, 4, and 7, in Baker Petrolite). Typical examples would be where the composition or internal structure of a compound or product would not give any information as to the method used to make it (claimed invention) or as to the starting material used (essential element of a claimed invention). One can also think of the use of a known compound or product for a new technical effect that may not be discernable through examination of the product itself as it must be used in combination with another the product (where the claim is for a new use of the combination).

[73] It is also worth noting that, in its opinion dated December 18, 1992, the European Patent Office Enlarged Board of Appeal made it very clear that the composition or internal structure of a product (and the same principle applies to all products) is part of the state of the art “when the product can be analysed and reproduced by a skilled person irrespective of whether or not particular reasons can be identified for analysing the composition [my emphasis]” (G 1/92 Availability to the Public [1993] O.J. EPO 277, [1993] E.P.O.R. 241. Note that this opinion was referred to by the House of Lords in Synthon BV v. SmithKline Beecham plc, [2005] UKHL 59 at paragraph 29). In the Board’s view, there is simply no legislative requirement for a motive; it is not necessary that the POSITA have a reason for looking for the product composition. Like Rothstein J.A. in Baker Petrolite, I find this to also be true in Canada. This is perfectly in line with the fact that the court does not have consider whether the notional POSITA would be interested by a relevant prior art publication in respect of anticipation by publication. The hypothetical POSITA is presumed to have properly read the document.

[74] Applying the principles set out above to the present matter, the Judge had to determine whether, in this case, there was an opportunity to access the relevant information during the rental.

[75] It is on this question that the Judge distinguished the case before her from the situation in Bauer. In the latter case, the products were not rented or used by a third party, they were simply shown in an arena open to the public during a practice, but in a manner that prevented anybody not bound by confidentiality to do anything more than a visual inspection from afar. It was found as a fact in that case that such inspection would not have enabled the POSITA to write down a full description of the invention. However, on the facts before her, the Judge concluded that the rented drilling tools were available for more than visual inspection (the reasons at paragraph 119) and that these tools could be dismantled (the reasons at paragraph 121). She expressly held that the fact that the tools were rented rather than sold outright did not detract from the conclusion that there were opportunities for their examination (the reasons at paragraph 121).

[76] The Judge does not discuss in her reasons the evidence she considered to arrive at the conclusion that the 3103 assembly could be dismantled, and what this would involve. She had several drawings of the relevant drilling motors and their parts, as well as drawings of other similar motors. She had a picture and an actual sample of the Plaintiffs’ own drilling motor similar to the one in the 3103 assembly, except for the clear section of the outer casing over the bearing assembly (used for exhibition only). Ken Wenzel indicated that the drilling motors rented to Ensco, like the other drilling motors at issue in this case, were built to be serviced (or maintained) (Appeal Book Volume 10 at pages 3036, 3082, 3100). This implies that access to their inner structure was possible. Ken Wenzel also said during his cross-examination that to take the motor apart, one needed something to hold it while the joints were unsealed with the appropriate tool(s). Such tool(s) would have been available at the Rosenberg shop that Ensco shared with Griffith (Appeal Book Volume 10 at pages 3024, 3099-3100).

[77] The fact that such appropriate tool(s) may not have been usually available at the drilling site per se or that opening of the joints is not usually done at a drilling site is irrelevant. There is no evidence that Ensco was prohibited from bringing appropriate tool(s) to the drilling site or from bringing one of the drilling motors to the machine shop.

[78] In the absence of express contractual provisions to the contrary, at common law, a lessee would be entitled to use the rented equipment as he wishes so long as he returns it in good order and condition (H.G. Beale et al., eds., Chitty on Contracts, 30th ed. (London, England: Thomson Reuters, 2008) at page 238, section 33-077). There was no evidence that the opening of the drilling tools would in any way damage them. In fact, given that such tools are made to be serviced, one could assume that the opening and closing of the joints of the steel casing protecting the motor and bearing assembly in order to examine the inner workings was something that Ensco could do. As mentioned, whether they were actually interested in doing so is irrelevant.

[79] Ken Wenzel was clear that no information whatsoever about these rented tools was confidential. The Judge accepted this evidence. From that, it also becomes clear that the sealing of the joints on the drilling tools had nothing to do with confidentiality.

[80] When asked before us why the rental of the tools as opposed to their sale was significant, the Appellants replied that Ensco had possession of the equipment for only a short period of time. Still, I cannot see how it was not open to the Judge to hold as she did that a rental rather than a sale of the drilling equipment had no impact.

[81] Coming back to the analogies used by the Judge, the reference to the engine under the hood may not, as mentioned, be the most appropriate in terms of how one could get to the inner workings of the drilling tools at issue. Nevertheless, this statement indicates to me that the Judge was satisfied that it was rather simple for the POSITA to get to the inner structure to examine and describe the invention underlying the ‘630 Patent.

[82] As pointed out by the Appellants, it is true that the Judge does not expressly discuss whether the POSITA had the necessary skill to use the appropriate tool to open the steel casing in order to observe the 3103 assembly. It may simply be that she did not find the Appellants’ argument (if it was actually made before her, the transcript does not disclose anything in that respect) was worth discussing.

[83] In fact, it is difficult to imagine how the POSITA described in paragraph 46 of the reasons would not be able to open the drilling motor to get to the bearing assembly. There was no evidence that the use of the appropriate tool to do so required any special skills or any inventive step. Certainly, the means to open the drilling motor were available.

Emission sur la contrefaçon sur la CBC ce soir (en reprise la fin de semaine)

January 10, 2013

Il y a des tests de contrefaçon sur le site web de l’émission

Une demande de brevet pour célébrer 2013

December 21, 2012


Scintillae of inventiveness or imagination #3

December 14, 2012

Articles repérés cette semaine:

Dessins industriels US: bientôt valables pendant 15 ans + changement sur le minimum requis pour avoir une date de dépôt US : revendications ne sont plus nécessaires

– New free chemical patent search tool:

-Infos sur brevet unitaire en Europe :

-Factsheet on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Mechanisms                         Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Mechanisms

-IP E-learning tools for SMEs  – To access this tool, please click here

-“Agreeing a Price for Intellectual Property Rights” Booklet; to freely download the booklet, click here.


Scintillae of inventiveness or imagination #2

November 2, 2012
  • Articles repérés cette semaine:


·         Direct Evidence of Lack of Utility Is Useful

AstraZeneca Canada Inc v Pharmascience Inc / alendronate (NOC) 2012 FC 1189 O’Keefe J

·         Canada: Using Wayback Machine Evidence

22 October 2012

A recent decision of the Trade-mark Opposition Board (“the Opposition Board”) has confirmed the admissibility of evidence obtained by using the Wayback Machine.

Scintillae of inventiveness or imagination #1

October 26, 2012

Une collection de nouvelles de la semaine, extraite de différents blogues/sites:

À surveiller au cours de prochains mois : un dessin industriel US pourrait éventuellement avoir une durée de 15 ans (un an de plus que maintenant):

Senate Approves Legislation to Implement Patent Law Treaties

Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act
S.3486, H.R. 6432, 9/25/2012

According to the Library of Congress, the bill has the following key features:

– Amends federal patent law to implement the Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs and the Patent Law Treaty. (Both treaties were ratified by the Senate on December 7, 2007.)

– Allows any person who is a U.S. national, or has a domicile, habitual residence, or real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in the United States, to file an international design application for international registration with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) (thereby enabling U.S. applicants to file a single application with USPTO instead of separate applications in multiple countries).

– Sets forth the priorities of national and prior foreign and national applications.

– Standardizes application procedures to be consistent with other member countries.

– Extends the term for design patents from 14 to 15 years from the date of grant.

  – Gilead Appeal Further Undermines Patent Listing Eligibility under the PM(NOC) Regulations

 Canada – Brand owners seek clarification from Quebec Superior Court on language obligations

 Canada Copyright Board Decisions:  subscribe to receive automated alerts of Copyright Board ruling that are posted to the Copyright Board website.

Kraft’s Cadbury Wins Ruling in Nestle Suit Over Color Purple

 CIRA      Decision: Weekday      Brands AB v. Whitfield Leslie over      (Transfer Granted)

CIRA Decision: Magna International Inc. v. Victor      Silva over (Transfer Granted)

Canada-EU drug patent demand in trade talks costs almost $2B

Poursuivie par Fruit of the Loom, Gildan évoque une erreur d’inadvertance

Un bon article sur les concepts de base dans les ententes de confidentialité

August 22, 2012

Voir l’article de DAVIS LLP sur le sujet

Nouvel outil potentiellement utile pour vos opinions/recherches en brevets: Google’s “Prior Art Finder”

August 15, 2012

Voir l’article d’Intellogist qui analyse le nouvel outil.

Potentiellement utile comme complément à d’autres recherches que vous pouvez effectuer.



Article sur la protection de droits de PI en Chine

April 23, 2012

Voir l’article de Forbes

J’aime entre autres la suggestion de parfois diviser, lorsque possible, la production d’un article à différents endroits en Chine et de garder la fabrication d’éléments essentiels à l’interne.

Outil de test de connaissances en PI pour les inventeurs et PME

April 4, 2012

Un outil développé par le USPTO pour évaluer vos connaissances en PI et qui suggère, selon les résultats, du matériel de formation

Voir l’outil ipAwarenessAssessment

Un inventeur brûle son certificat de brevet devant le parlement britannique

March 14, 2012

Voir l’article du Daily Telegraph

Voir le commentaire de IAM

Article sur des recommendations de protection de secrets de commerce

February 5, 2012

Voir l’article publié par Bloomberg Law

Palmarès des brevetés au Canada en 2011

January 17, 2012

Voir la liste publiée par

Article sur l’utilité d’enregistrer des droits de sûreté à l’Office de la propriété intellectuelle du Canada

January 6, 2012

Voir l’article d’Osler

OMPI: Reprise des dépôts mondiaux de demandes de titres de propriété intellectuelle en 2010 malgré la tourmente économique

December 23, 2011

Voir le rapport de l’OMPI

Des faits saillants pour le Canada:


Les résidents du Japon (172 945 demandes) et ceux des États-Unis d’Amérique (178 355 demandes) ont, de loin, déposé le plus grand nombre de demandes de brevet en dehors de leur propre pays.  Cependant, les résidents du Canada, d’Israël, des Pays-Bas et de la Suisse ont déposé plus de 80% de leurs demandes totales à l’étranger.  Les résidents de la Chine, en revanche, n’ont déposé qu’une petite partie (5%) de leurs demandes à l’étranger.

Le rapport, qui s’est intéressé à l’activité en matière de brevets par domaine technologique, indiquait que l’informatique, les machines électriques, les techniques audiovisuelles et la technologie médicale représentaient la majorité des dépôts de demandes de brevet dans le monde.


L’Office de la propriété intellectuelle du Canada a enregistré une croissance de 20% en 2010 (croissance mesurée par le nombre de dessins ou modèles industriels contenus dans les demandes).  Les offices de la propriété intellectuelle de la Chine (20%), de l’Australie (14%), de l’Espagne (13%) et des États-Unis d’Amérique (12.6%) ont également connu des augmentations substantielles de leurs demandes en 2010.  Les offices de la France et de la République de Corée sont les deux principaux offices ayant connu une légère baisse de leurs demandes.