Accord Libre-échange Canada-Europe: plus de détails sur les clauses de propriété intellectuelle

October 30, 2013

Voir à partir de page 19 de http://www.scribd.com/doc/179997782/CETA-pdf

Pharmaceuticals

Data protection

Canada rejected the EU request to provide 10 years of data protection

Canada agreed to lock in the current Canadian practice of providing eight years of market exclusivity

current regulations provide a six year “no-filing” period during which no applications for generic drugs are

accepted for regulatory consideration and a two-year“no-marketing” period during which generics can

progress toward market readiness but cannot be sold

Patent linkage / right of appeal

Canada agreed to a general commitment to ensure that litigants are afforded effective rights of appeal, which

gives scope for Canada to end the practice of dual litigation.

ensures all litigants have equal appeal rights

will bring improvements to Canada’s pharmaceutical intellectual property regime by taking inefficiencies

out of the system

litigation in this area is currently one of the largest draws on the federal court system

guarantee of an effective appeal for brands and more certainty for generics

Background:

Both generic and brand-name drug manufacturers take issue with the status quo regarding the

opportunities for litigation and appeal in Canada.

Brand-name manufacturers do not have an effective right of appeal under the patent-linkage system.

Generic manufacturers note that a successful result under patent-linkage litigation is no guarantee of success

in the case of subsequent litigation under thePatent Act.

Additional protection

Canada agreed to provide additional (sui generis) protection for pharmaceutical products protected by eligible

patents in Canada.

Thee period of protection will be calculated using reference points including the filing of the application for the

patent and the first authorization to place the product on the Canadian market.

•The period of protection offered by Canada will never exceed a fixed cap of two years.

•The cap on the period of protection in the EU remains higher, at five years.

Exceptions have been negotiated to allow for Canadian-made generic medicines to be exported during the

period of additional protection.

•This will temper the impact on the generic industry and its competitiveness in the important United States

market.

No retroactivity: pharmaceutical products that are already approved and on the Canadian market would not

receive additional protection.

Any cost impacts not likely to be felt until 2023*.

*using eight as an estimate of the average number of years that a pharmaceutical product would be on the

market before becoming eligible for the type of additional protection negotiated in CETA, and assuming

that CETA is ratified in 2015

Should concessions to the EU in this area generate cost impacts on provincial and territorial governments, the

federal government is prepared to address these incremental cost impacts.

Copyright

The CETA result on copyright reflects Canada’s system as updated by the 2012 Copyright Modernization Act,

which brought Canada into compliance with the two 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization treaties

(Copyright, and Performances and Phonograms).

Reiterates existing aspects of Canada’s copyright regime, including term of protection, broadcasting, protection

of technological measures (technology designed to protect copyrighted material), protection of rights

management information, and liability of intermediary (e.g. Internet) service providers

Trademarks and designs

Canada did not take on specific commitments in this area. !e CETA result on trademarks and designs reflects

a best endeavours commitment to make all reasonable efforts to comply with international agreements and

standards to encourage more effective trademark and industrial design procedures.

With regard to the above, CETA specifically mentions the Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks, the

Protocol Related to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, and the

Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs.

Geographical indications (GIs)

Canada currently recognizes a number of EU wines and spirit geographical indications (GI), such as Cognac

and Bordeaux.

Agreed to varying ways of addressing EU requests regarding 179 terms covering foods and beer

Preserved space for Canadian trademark holders and for users of commonly used English and French names for

food products

Offer protection for GIs without prejudicing the validity of existing Canadian trademarks

The economic impact will be contained in Canada.

Enforcement of GIs in the Canadian market remains a private matter to be argued before the courts.

Some EU GIs were protected but with the caveat that they not impact the ability of producers to use specified

English- and French-language terms that are commonly employed in Canada.

•The following terms continue to be free for use in the Canadian market, in both official languages,

regardless of product origin: Valencia orange, Black Forest ham, Tiroler bacon, Parmesan, Bavarian beer,

Munich beer.

For example, Canadian producers would be able to use English and French but not the German language

for Black Forest ham (Schwarzwaelder Schinken).

Limited GI rights provided to EU on: Asiago, feta, fontina, Gorgonzola and Munster

won’t affect ability of current users of these names in Canada to continue use

future users will be able to use the names only when accompanied by expressions such as “kind,” “type,”

style,” “imitation” or the like

Canada preserves the ability to use the customary name of a plant variety or an animal breed.

Producers can, for example, sell the kalamata variety of olive and use the variety name in their packaging.

Canada maintains ability to use components of multi-part terms, for example:

“Brie de Meaux“ will be protected, but the term “brie” can be used on its own

“Gouda Holland“ will be protected, but the term “Gouda” can be used on its own

“Edam Holland” will be protected, but the term “Edam” can be used on its own

“Mortadella Bologna“ will be protected, but either “Mortadella” or “bologna” can be used separately

Canada did not agree to protect the French term “noix de Grenoble” (walnut, in English), meaning this term

remains free for use in Canada.

Budweiser beer : Canada will not protect the GI “Budejovicke,” which prevents any potential conflict with the

Budweiser trademark.

Consultations were conducted with stakeholders, including meetings with individual trademark holders.

Plants and plant protection products

Reflects Canadian regime

provides certainty for data protection for plant protection products

Commits both sides to co-operate to promote and reinforce the protection of plant varieties based on the

International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)

Canada and the EU already work together under UPOV.

CETA will not change the “farmers’ privilege” to save and replant seeds of a protected variety on their own land

under the federal Plant Breeders’Rights’ Act.

Enforcement

Commitment to ensure simple, fair, equitable and cost-effective enforcement of intellectual property rights

Includes provisions on civil remedies and border enforcement in line with Canada’s existing regime and federal

Bill C-56, Combating Counterfeit Products Act

Commitments concerning the handling of geographical indications at the border: to be confirmed

!is is not expected to interrupt trade at the border.

Publication d’une étude internationale sur la protection des jeux-vidéo par droit d’auteur

October 28, 2013

Résumé de l’OMPI

Listes des top 20 “joueurs” en brevets dans différentes industries/technologies

October 25, 2013

Liste Patent Power 2013 d’IEEE

Plus d’information sur le programme “Premier brevet” du gouvernement québécois

October 16, 2013

Information mise en ligne aujourd’hui:
Politique nationale de la recherche et de l’innovation 2014-2019 – Investir dans la recherche et l’innovation, c’est Investir dans le Québec

(mais je n’ai pas encore vu de programme détaillé sur le site avec des formulaires, etc.)

4.6.1 La création du programme Premier brevet

L’accession des entreprises à la propriété intellectuelle est une phase essentielle de leur développement. Elle assure la consolidation de nouvelles occasions d’affaires. C’est particulièrement le cas dans un contexte d’innovation ouverte, où les entreprises québécoises sont appelées à collaborer avec des partenaires nombreux, issus de secteurs et de pays différents.

On a souvent souligné que les entreprises québécoises ne manquaient pas d’idées, mais qu’elles négligeaient souvent de les protéger. Ce problème peut être en partie attribué à une formation incomplète en matière de brevetabilité. De fait, plusieurs d’entre elles ne saisissent pas encore toute l’importance de traduire leurs innovations sous forme de propriété intellectuelle.

Afin de remédier à ces difficultés, la Politique nationale de la recherche et de l’innovation conduit à la création du programme Premier brevet. Ce nouvel outil offrira une aide financière et technique aux PME désireuses d’entreprendre une démarche visant le dépôt d’une première demande de brevet auprès de l’Office de la propriété intellectuelle du Canada. Cette aide pourra être étendue aux frais liés au dépôt d’une demande de brevet semblable auprès d’autres organismes. Le but de cette mesure est d’augmenter le nombre de brevets d’invention délivrés à des PME québécoises.

Un brevet est d’abord émis au nom de l’inventeur. À ce chapitre, le Québec performe relativement bien, avec une croissance annuelle moyenne de 3,6 % entre 2001 et 2011 (ISQ, 2013). Nous disposons donc de créateurs et  d’innovateurs capables de produire de nouveaux produits, de nouveaux concepts ou de nouveaux procédés.

Le brevet d’invention peut ensuite être conservé par l’inventeur, ou cédé à une entreprise, à une université, à l’État, etc. C’est ce nouveau titulaire qui possède alors le pouvoir de commercialiser cette invention. Or, au Québec, le nombre de brevets d’invention délivrés à des titulaires (donc cédés à une entité institutionnelle ou commerciale) a connu une décroissance annuelle moyenne de 4,5 % depuis 2001.

Ailleurs au Canada, on observe plutôt une croissance annuelle moyenne de 1,1 % (ISQ, 2013). Il est donc urgent d’agir. C’est un impératif auquel répondra le programme Premier brevet, en donnant aux PME la chance de protéger leurs actifs (brevets, marques de commerce, dessins techniques) et d’en tirer profit, rapidement.

Apprendre à bien gérer les paramètres de la propriété intellectuelle et à récolter les fruits tirés d’une innovation suppose la maîtrise de l’ensemble des pratiques reliées à l’identification et à la protection des actifs intangibles. Il faut également savoir en tirer profit ou en acquérir les droits d’exploitation. Premier brevet permettra notamment de couvrir :

  • Le coût des recherches sur l’état des techniques déjà couvertes par la propriété intellectuelle canadienne ou étrangère avant le dépôt éventuel du brevet, afin de valider la nouveauté de l’innovation à breveter;
  • Le coût des recherches sur les certifications ou approbations nécessaires à l’utilisation du produit, le cas échéant;
  • Les honoraires de l’agent de brevet ou de l’avocat embauché pour appuyer la demande, de même que les frais de dépôt de la demande de brevet au Canada;
  • Les frais de même nature liés au dépôt d’une demande de brevet semblable à l’étranger;
  • Le coût de certaines activités de formation liées à l’utilisation de l’innovation une fois le brevet obtenu.

Dorénavant, les entreprises québécoises pourront également bénéficier des services du Réseau de recherche et d’innovation du Québec pour bénéficier de formations adaptées à leur besoin en matière de propriété intellectuelle.

Rétablissement de brevets abandonnés “intentionnellement” aux États-Unis

October 9, 2013

http://www.dww.com/?p=5076

Dans la nouvelle politique économique du gouvernement québécois: création du programme Premier brevet

October 7, 2013
 Dans la nouvelle politique économique annoncée par le gouvernement québécois cet après-midi:— la création du programme Premier brevet, qui offrira une aide financière et
technique aux PME dans leurs démarches visant le dépôt d’une première
demande de brevet;
(il y a peu d’autres détails dans ce premier document sauf les montants alloués au programme (montants en millions):
Premier brevet
2013-2014  —
2014-2015   2,0
2015-2016   5,0
2016-2017   8,0
        Total    15,0
Le ministre Pierre Duchesne dévoilera plus tard les détails du programme…

Décision Eurocopter confirmée à la Cour d’appel fédérale

September 27, 2013
        Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limitée c. Eurocopter, 2013 CAF 219 (PDF)

Résumé de IPPractice

Notes:
-Dommages punitifs maintenus (mais noter qu’il y avait
relativement moins de dommages réels, donc la Cour voulait
essentiellement trouver une façon alternative de punir le
contrefacteur)-mais tout ça demeure un recours exceptionnel
-La prédiction valable continue à pouvoir s’appliquer à des inventions en mécanique

Google Patents intègre maintenant les bases de données de l’OPIC, Allemagne, Chine et OMPI

September 27, 2013

Voir l‘annonce sur un des blogues de Google

OEB: webinaire et présentation sur le brevet européen unitaire

August 20, 2013

OEB: webinaire et présentation sur le brevet européen unitaire

Demande de brevet récemment publiée par Intellectual Ventures avec Bill Gates comme inventeur

August 20, 2013
Intéressant notamment pour voir le langage utilisé dans la demande. Les revendications semblent très larges.

Texte de la demande sur USPTO

Article de Bloomberg sur cette demande

Jurisprudence CA: Brevets – Divulgation de l’invention – Incitation à la contrefaçon avec des manuels d’utilisateurs – Contrefaçon par exportation de pièces – Erreur cléricale ne rend pas une revendication inutile-Règle 29

August 16, 2013

Varco Canada Limited et al. v. Pason Systems Corp. et al.,
2013 FC 750

Copie de la décision

Résumé de IPPractice

Extraits pertinents:

- Divulgation de l’invention; par. [289-308]

- Incitation à la contrefaçon avec des manuels d’utilisateurs ; par
[250-256]

- Contrefaçon par exportation de pièces; par [257-266]

- Erreur cléricale ne rend pas une revendication inutile; par
[336]

-Ne pas citer un RRI-PCT n’est pas nécessairement un manquement de
mauvaise foi à une requête sous la R.29; par [359-375]

Jurisprudence US: licences hydrides de brevets

July 19, 2013

Résumé de Justia.com:

Kimble v. Marvel Enter., Inc.

Court: U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals

Docket: 11-15605 Opinion Date: July 16, 2013
Judge: Callahan

Areas of Law: Intellectual Property, Patents

Plaintiff sued Marvel for patent infringement and breach of contract, claiming that it had used his ideas in developing a Spider-Man role-playing toy called the "Web Blaster" without compensating him. The parties subsequently agreed to settle the case while appeals were pending and executed a Settlement Agreement. Thereafter, Marvel entered into a licensing agreement with Hasbro giving it the right to produce the Web Blaster. At issue was the calculation of royalties for subsequent iterations of the Web Blaster. The court joined its sister circuits in holding, pursuant to Brulotte v. Thys Co., that a so-called "hybrid" licensing agreement encompassing inseparable patent and non-patent rights was unenforceable beyond the expiration date of the underlying patent, unless the agreement provided a discounted rate for the non-patent rights or some other clear indication that the royalty at issue was in no way subject to patent leverage. Accordingly, the court affirmed the district court’s grant of summary judgment in favor of Marvel, concluding that plaintiff could not recover royalties under the Settlement Agreement beyond the expiration date of the patent at issue.

Description des problèmes avec le projet “paperless” au USPTO

July 18, 2013

Un article du New Yorker

Scintillae of inventiveness or imagination #5

June 27, 2013

Liste des 300 premiers détenteurs de brevets aux États-Unis

L’association Intellectual Property Owners (IPO) a récemment publié une liste des 300 premiers détenteurs de brevets aux États-Unis pour les brevets émis dans l’année 2012. Une copie de la liste se trouve sur le site suivant.

Traduction automatique de brevets japonais

L’Office européen des brevets (OEB) et le Bureau des brevets du Japon ont annoncé conjointement en juin 2013 le lancement d’un nouveau module japonais-anglais de l’outil de traduction automatique de l’OEB Patent Translate. Avec cet outil, plus d’un million de documents de brevets japonais peuvent dorénavant être traduits gratuitement en anglais. De l’information additionnelle sur ce nouvel outil est disponible sur le lien suivant.

 

Vidéos de formation sur les récents changements législatifs en droit des brevets aux États-Unis

De nombreux changements à la loi sur les brevets aux États-Unis sont entrés en vigueur aux États-Unis le 16 mars dernier, incluant un changement de système privilégiant le premier inventeur vers un système dit de “premier inventeur-déposant “, tel qu’il existe en général ailleurs dans le monde. Afin d’aider les utilisateurs du système des brevets aux États-Unis à comprendre l’étendue de ces changements, le Bureau des brevets des États-Unis a rendu disponible une série de viédos de formation expliquant entre autres la nature des publications et enseignements d’art antérieur qui peuvent maintenant être cités à l’encontre de demandes de brevets aux États-Unis. Chaque vidéo dure moins de 5 minutes et introduit les concepts de base de la loi et ses exceptions. Les vidéos sont disponibles sur le lien suivant.

 

Collection de publications pour les PMEs sur la protection de propriété intellectuelle en Chine

L’organisme China IPR SME Helpdesk  rend disponible aux PMEs une série de guides, fiches techniques et présentations spécialisés qui permettent de mieux comprendre la réalité de faire affaires en Chine, du point de vue de la gestion de vos droits de propriété intellectuelle (PI). Les documents couvrent divers sujets incluant les noms de domaine, un guide sur des contrats visant la protection de vos droits de PI , un guide sur la recherche et développement en Chine, la manière de défendre vos droits de brevets ou de marques, un guide de protection des secrets commerciaux en Chine ainsi qu’un guide comment travailler avec les Douanes chinoises. Les documents sont disponibles sur le lien suivant.

Article intéressant: The Troubled Life of Patent No. 6,456,841

May 2, 2013

Article publié dans IEEE Spectrum:

The Troubled Life of Patent No. 6,456,841

Le résumé: Tracing the tortured legal trail of a simple smartphone patent

Les brevets avaient mené au développement du premier photocopieur!

April 17, 2013

Un extrait intéressant d’un site décrivant l’histoire de Xerox http://www.fujixerox.co.nz/library/1b6cfab0-96d3-4f00-9f3a-9568c5372d64.cmr :

Upon graduating from high school, Carlson worked his way through a nearby junior college where he majored in chemistry. He then entered California Institute of Technology, and was graduated in two years with a degree in physics.

More problems faced Carlson as he entered a job market shattered by the developing Depression. He applied to eighty-two firms, and received only two replies before landing a $35-a-week job as a research engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City. As the Depression deepened, he was laid off at Bell, worked briefly for a patent attorney, and then secured a position with the electronics firm of PR. Mallory & Co. While there, he studied law at night, earning a law degree from New York Law School. Carlson was eventually promoted to manager of Mallory’s patent department.

“I had my job,” he recalled, “but I didn’t think I was getting ahead very fast. I was just living from hand to mouth, and I had just gotten married. It was kind of a struggle, so I thought the possibility of making an invention might kill two birds with one stone: It would be a chance to do the world some good and also a chance to do myself some good.”

As he worked at his job, Carlson noted that there never seemed to be enough carbon copies of patent specifications, and there seemed to be no quick or practical way of getting more. The choices were limited to sending for expensive photo copies, or having the documents retyped and then reread for errors.

A thought occurred to him: Offices might benefit from a device that would accept a document and make copies of it in seconds. For many months Carlson spent his evenings at the New York Public Library reading all he could about imaging processes. He decided immediately not to research in the area of conventional photography, where light is an agent for chemical change, because that phenomenon was already being exhaustively explored in research labs of large corporations.

Ce qui a mené au brevet suivant : http://www.google.com/patents/US2297691 et au développement de la compagnie Xerox, etc. (Voir le premier lien pour l’histoire complète)

Un arrêt au pays des inventions: l’”inventeuse” à noms d’inventions

April 10, 2013

http://aupaysdesinventions.inpi.fr/atelier/atelier-inventeuse/

Un voyage au pays des inventions

April 10, 2013

L’Écume des jours, l’adaptation du roman de Boris Vian par Michel Gondry, est un film qui aura sa sortie en France le 24 avril de 2013.

À l’occasion de la sortie du film, l’INPI veut réveiller l’inventeur qui sommeille en nous avec son site événementiel “Au pays des inventions“, en avant-première:

http://aupaysdesinventions.inpi.fr/ 

 

En ce jour de St-Valentin, une demande de brevet utilisée comme instrument de demande en mariage

February 14, 2013

Voir la demande sur le site: https://s3.amazonaws.com/USPDF/20070078663.pdf

Scintillae of inventiveness or imagination #4

February 8, 2013

Articles repérés dans les dernières semaines:

RIM at head of pack in patent prowess – Globe and Mail http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/rim-at-head-of-pack-in-patent-prowess/article8257923/

- U.S. Inventiveness at Highest Point Since Industrial Revolution http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2013/metropatenting

-Report Shows Median Price Paid for Issued U.S. Patents Is $221,000  http://www.ipfrontline.com/depts/article.aspx?id=50014&deptid=3

Article sur la stratégie de P&G dans leurs dépôts de dessins industriels

http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2012/06/article_0004.html

Jurisprudence brevets:

« Coffee, tea, SEGA – patent problems »

Toujours mieux de corriger les erreurs concernant les inventeurs avant que le brevet soit émis. Sinon, il faut demander à la Cour fédérale pour permission.

Segatoys Co., Ltd. v. Canada (Attorney General) , 2013 FC 98 (January 30, 2013)

Autre décision

À contraster avec le test de Nike c. Bauer (voir par. 75 ci-dessous) : 1. The patent was not anticipated. Easton had argued that Nike/Bauer anticipated its own patent by having NHL hockey players try on prototype skates in a public arena before the filing date of the patent. The appeal court agreed that based on the available evidence, such casual observation of the prototypes without an opportunity for close scrutiny would not have revealed the invention to a skilled observer.

  • Wenzel      Downhole Tools Ltd. v. National-Oilwell Canada Ltd., 2012 FCA 333 (Justice      Nadon; Justice Mainville; Justice Gauthier)

http://decisions.fca-caf.gc.ca/en/2012/2012fca333/2012fca333.html

Extrait pertinent sur la nouveauté (est-ce qu’une vente/location constitue une divulgation):

63] That being said, the real focus in this appeal was on whether an accurate and full description of the invention was available in this case, applying the undisputed principles set out in the reasons at paragraphs 80-90. As noted in the Appellants’ Outline of oral argument on Anticipation, did the judge misapply the law when one considers her findings of facts with respect to what actually occurred? For the Appellants , the Judge erred because “disclosure, not hypothetical disclosure of the invention is a necessary precursor to a determination of anticipation”

[64] In Lux, Aldous J. made it clear that he did not accept the argument before him that the task of the Court was to ascertain “what actually happened during the use of the prototype [the product embodying the claimed invention in his case] and from that conclude what a skilled man would assimilate” (Lux at page 134).

[65] In this case, I believe that the Appellants exhibit a similar misunderstanding.

[66] The test for anticipation by disclosure through a product (and for that matter, for anticipation by publication) is an objective one. Whether or not a real person fitting the description of the POSITA was actually present at the drilling site is irrelevant, as is what actually happened at the site during the rental period.

[67] What is relevant in the case of a product like the drilling tools at issue “is that which the skilled man would, if asked to describe its construction and operation, write down having carried out an appropriate test or examination.[my emphasis]” (Lux at page 134 in the passage actually cited by the Judge in her reasons at paragraph 87).

[68] My understanding, based on the relevant jurisprudence, is that becoming available means that, the public, as defined earlier, had an opportunity to access the information that is the invention. As previously mentioned, it does not require that one actually took advantage of this opportunity. Once the opportunity is established as a fact (here, for example, that: (i) Dreco had unrestricted access to the drilling tools, and any information derived from such access was not protected by confidentiality; and (ii) a method to open such tools and examine their internal structures was known), the Court applies the legal test for anticipation developed in Sanofi (full disclosure of all the essential elements of the invention and enablement) to the information that the fictional POSITA would derive from the fictional examination.

[69] The Appellants disagree with the analogies used by the Judge, being: (i) a book in a public library (the reasons at paragraph 118); and (ii) the “lifting of the hood” (the reasons at paragraph 123). They say that the drilling tools in this case are not analogous to a book in a library, nor was the opening of the tools like the lifting of the hood of a car. Again, I cannot agree. Aldous J. in Lux, later quoted by Rothstein J.A. in Baker Petrolite, referred to the book in a public library even though he was looking at a case of prior use of a product, not anticipation by publication. The book in the public library could be in Japanese, even though the library is located in a remote village where no one speaks Japanese. This would still be a disclosure that would make whatever information it contained available, even though accessing the information that is available requires the use of a dictionary or even an interpreter that would not be available in that village. As for the lifting of the hood, it is true that opening the sealed joints to examine the internal structure may be a bit more tedious than lifting a hood but that does not detract from the validity of the analogy. As mentioned, this is not relevant; being available does not require that access to the information be easy, simply that it be possible using known methods and instruments.

[70] Again, I reiterate that it is my understanding of the law as it stands now that even if the library listed in a ledger all those who entered the library and recorded each book they reviewed, and a defendant would accordingly be able to prove that nobody had actually accessed the book in the library, my conclusion would be the same. The presence of the book in the library is sufficient to make the information available, and thus to meet the requirements for anticipation within the meaning of section 28.2.

[71] Although this may appear harsh, it is less so than the test that was applied in Canada prior to the adoption of paragraph 28.2(1)(a), and in England prior to the adoption of their Patents Act 1977 implementing the EPC. There is no evidence that, by adopting this new paragraph, the Canadian legislator meant to achieve any purpose other than harmonization with the test applied in Europe. I note that a similar amendment will come into force in the United States in 2013 (Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 35 U.S.C. at §102 (coming into effect on March 16, 2013)).

[72] As mentioned in Baker Petrolite, paragraph 28.2(1)(a) now excludes from anticipatory uses products the examination of which would not give an accurate and complete description of the invention even if the most complex of the known analytical methods were used by the POSITA (see paragraph 42, particularly subparagraphs 1, 4, and 7, in Baker Petrolite). Typical examples would be where the composition or internal structure of a compound or product would not give any information as to the method used to make it (claimed invention) or as to the starting material used (essential element of a claimed invention). One can also think of the use of a known compound or product for a new technical effect that may not be discernable through examination of the product itself as it must be used in combination with another the product (where the claim is for a new use of the combination).

[73] It is also worth noting that, in its opinion dated December 18, 1992, the European Patent Office Enlarged Board of Appeal made it very clear that the composition or internal structure of a product (and the same principle applies to all products) is part of the state of the art “when the product can be analysed and reproduced by a skilled person irrespective of whether or not particular reasons can be identified for analysing the composition [my emphasis]” (G 1/92 Availability to the Public [1993] O.J. EPO 277, [1993] E.P.O.R. 241. Note that this opinion was referred to by the House of Lords in Synthon BV v. SmithKline Beecham plc, [2005] UKHL 59 at paragraph 29). In the Board’s view, there is simply no legislative requirement for a motive; it is not necessary that the POSITA have a reason for looking for the product composition. Like Rothstein J.A. in Baker Petrolite, I find this to also be true in Canada. This is perfectly in line with the fact that the court does not have consider whether the notional POSITA would be interested by a relevant prior art publication in respect of anticipation by publication. The hypothetical POSITA is presumed to have properly read the document.

[74] Applying the principles set out above to the present matter, the Judge had to determine whether, in this case, there was an opportunity to access the relevant information during the rental.

[75] It is on this question that the Judge distinguished the case before her from the situation in Bauer. In the latter case, the products were not rented or used by a third party, they were simply shown in an arena open to the public during a practice, but in a manner that prevented anybody not bound by confidentiality to do anything more than a visual inspection from afar. It was found as a fact in that case that such inspection would not have enabled the POSITA to write down a full description of the invention. However, on the facts before her, the Judge concluded that the rented drilling tools were available for more than visual inspection (the reasons at paragraph 119) and that these tools could be dismantled (the reasons at paragraph 121). She expressly held that the fact that the tools were rented rather than sold outright did not detract from the conclusion that there were opportunities for their examination (the reasons at paragraph 121).

[76] The Judge does not discuss in her reasons the evidence she considered to arrive at the conclusion that the 3103 assembly could be dismantled, and what this would involve. She had several drawings of the relevant drilling motors and their parts, as well as drawings of other similar motors. She had a picture and an actual sample of the Plaintiffs’ own drilling motor similar to the one in the 3103 assembly, except for the clear section of the outer casing over the bearing assembly (used for exhibition only). Ken Wenzel indicated that the drilling motors rented to Ensco, like the other drilling motors at issue in this case, were built to be serviced (or maintained) (Appeal Book Volume 10 at pages 3036, 3082, 3100). This implies that access to their inner structure was possible. Ken Wenzel also said during his cross-examination that to take the motor apart, one needed something to hold it while the joints were unsealed with the appropriate tool(s). Such tool(s) would have been available at the Rosenberg shop that Ensco shared with Griffith (Appeal Book Volume 10 at pages 3024, 3099-3100).

[77] The fact that such appropriate tool(s) may not have been usually available at the drilling site per se or that opening of the joints is not usually done at a drilling site is irrelevant. There is no evidence that Ensco was prohibited from bringing appropriate tool(s) to the drilling site or from bringing one of the drilling motors to the machine shop.

[78] In the absence of express contractual provisions to the contrary, at common law, a lessee would be entitled to use the rented equipment as he wishes so long as he returns it in good order and condition (H.G. Beale et al., eds., Chitty on Contracts, 30th ed. (London, England: Thomson Reuters, 2008) at page 238, section 33-077). There was no evidence that the opening of the drilling tools would in any way damage them. In fact, given that such tools are made to be serviced, one could assume that the opening and closing of the joints of the steel casing protecting the motor and bearing assembly in order to examine the inner workings was something that Ensco could do. As mentioned, whether they were actually interested in doing so is irrelevant.

[79] Ken Wenzel was clear that no information whatsoever about these rented tools was confidential. The Judge accepted this evidence. From that, it also becomes clear that the sealing of the joints on the drilling tools had nothing to do with confidentiality.

[80] When asked before us why the rental of the tools as opposed to their sale was significant, the Appellants replied that Ensco had possession of the equipment for only a short period of time. Still, I cannot see how it was not open to the Judge to hold as she did that a rental rather than a sale of the drilling equipment had no impact.

[81] Coming back to the analogies used by the Judge, the reference to the engine under the hood may not, as mentioned, be the most appropriate in terms of how one could get to the inner workings of the drilling tools at issue. Nevertheless, this statement indicates to me that the Judge was satisfied that it was rather simple for the POSITA to get to the inner structure to examine and describe the invention underlying the ‘630 Patent.

[82] As pointed out by the Appellants, it is true that the Judge does not expressly discuss whether the POSITA had the necessary skill to use the appropriate tool to open the steel casing in order to observe the 3103 assembly. It may simply be that she did not find the Appellants’ argument (if it was actually made before her, the transcript does not disclose anything in that respect) was worth discussing.

[83] In fact, it is difficult to imagine how the POSITA described in paragraph 46 of the reasons would not be able to open the drilling motor to get to the bearing assembly. There was no evidence that the use of the appropriate tool to do so required any special skills or any inventive step. Certainly, the means to open the drilling motor were available.


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